Coal, one of the most important primary fossil fuels, is a solid carbon-rich material that is usually brown or black and most often occurs in stratified sedimentary deposits. Coal is defined as having quite 50 percent by weight (or 70 percent by volume) carbonaceous matter produced by the compaction and hardening of altered plant remains—namely, peat deposits.
Different sorts of coal arise due to differences within the sorts of material (coal type), degree of coalification (coal rank), and range of impurities (coal grade).
Although most coals occur in stratified sedimentary deposits, the deposits may later be subjected to elevated temperatures and pressures caused by igneous intrusions or deformation during orogenesis (i.e., processes of mountain building), leading to the event of anthracite and even graphite. Although the concentration of carbon in Earth’s crust doesn't exceed 0.1 percent by weight, it's indispensable to life and constitutes humankind’s main source of energy.
Coal is an abundant natural resource that will be used as a source of energy, as a chemical source from which numerous synthetic compounds (e.g., dyes, oils, waxes, pharmaceuticals, and pesticides) can be derived, and in the production of coke for metallurgical processes. Coal may be a major source of energy within the production of electric power using steam generation.
In addition, gasification and liquefaction of coal produce gaseous and liquid fuels which will be easily transported (e.g., by pipeline) and conveniently stored in tanks. After the tremendous rise in coal use within the early 2000s, which was primarily driven by the expansion of China’s economy, coal use worldwide peaked in 2012. Since then coal use has experienced a steady decline, offset largely by increases in natural gas use.
Uses : Electricity Generation, Metal Production, Cement Production, Chemical Production, Other Industries
Advantages : Energy Source, Compatible, Convertible, Abundant availability
Bitumen is an important component of our world. The substance is responsible for waterproofing, sealing, and insulating different materials in a myriad of industries. Apart from that, bitumen is employed widely in construction as a robust binder.
Bitumen not only lowers the costs of construction but also reduces the necessity for maintenance and prolongs the service life of roads across the planet. Bitumen has various types and grades.
Based on its resource (natural or refined), bitumen comes with different features and properties. This leads to the classification of bitumen into various grades with different applications.
Bituminous materials are used for road construction, roofing, waterproofing, and other applications which are useful for man. For the main application, which is road construction, the major concerns, as with concrete, are cost and durability. Bitumen may be a petroleum-based material, used for binding stones and sands and producing asphalt for construction. The majority of bitumen across the planet is produced by the distillation of petroleum.
Uses : Road construction, Roofing, Waterproofing
Advantages : Quick Repair, Staged Construction, Life Cost is Less, Temperature Resistant