A light-weight and powerful metal with natural corrosion resistance, aluminum is that the third most abundant element on Earth.
With additional properties like high strength-to-weight ratio, durability, machinability, and reflectivity, aluminum alloys became a artifact of choice for applications like siding material, building material, gutters and downspouts, window trim, architectural details, and even structural support for grid shell style architecture, drawbridges, high-rise buildings and skyscrapers.
Finally, aluminum is soundproof and airtight. Because of this feature, aluminum extrusions are commonly used as window and door frames. The aluminum frames allow for an exceptionally tight seal. Dust, air, water, and sound are unable to penetrate doors and windows when they are closed. Therefore, aluminum has cemented itself as a highly valuable artifact within the modern housing industry. Today, aluminum is recognized as one of the most energy efficient and sustainable construction materials.
Uses: Mouldings, Window Frames
Advantages : Strong, Lightweight, Can Be Recycled
Clay bricks were amongst the primary artificial materials produced by men for building purposes that proved to be easy to supply, resistant, and sturdy, as attested by the various examples that can be seen all around the world that endured centuries of rough climacteric conditions and wars.
Clay bricks are simply produced by mixing clay and water. Hardening methods evolved from sun-drying to industrial ovens, which allowed strength and durability to increase.
Clay bricks and pavers are particularly sustainable and natural building materials because they contain the natural raw materials clay and water. Bricks and Pavers are absolutely freed from pollutants and allergens and thus especially compatible with humans and nature and have an incredibly long period of overflow 120 years and also are often recycled from demolished projects, thus adding even more to their sustainability and eco-friendly properties.
Uses: Walls, Paths, Driveways
Advantages : Versatile, Good Thermal Mass
Concrete is that the most ordinarily used man-made material on earth.
It is a crucial construction material used extensively in buildings, bridges, roads and dams.Its uses range from structural applications to paviours, kerbs, pipes and drains.Concrete may be a construction material composed of cement, fine aggregates (sand) and coarse aggregates mixed with water which hardens with time.Portland cement is that the commonly used sort of cement for the production of concrete.
Concrete technology deals with the study of the properties of concrete and its practical applications. In building construction, concrete is employed for the development of foundations, columns, beams, slabs and other load-bearing elements.
Uses: Floors, Walls, Supports
Advantages : High Thermal Mass, Strong, Durable, Economical, Resists Termites And Earthquakes
In fibre cement, there's fibre reinforcement with cement, which contributes to creating the fibre-cement material even stronger.
Together with a carefully planned production process, fibre cement makes it possible to develop strong and long-lasting construction materials. Today fibre cement is taken into account as a cloth physically fitted to construction products like cladding and roofing.
It is primarily thanks to its function, performance and commercial value. It’s the front-runner in applying innovation at works. With high strength and unparalleled durability, the product is a perfect choice for all indoor and outdoor construction needs.
Advantages : Low Embodied Energy, Light, Inexpensive, Good Thermal Properties, Can Be Rendered
Glass has been a desirable material to humankind since it had been first made in about 500 BC. At first, thought to possess magical properties, glass has come an extended way.
It is one of the foremost versatile and oldest materials within the building industry. From its humble beginnings as a windowpane in luxury houses of Pompeii to stylish structural members in new age buildings, its role in architecture has evolved over the years.
The glass utilized in many structural applications in buildings has become more conversant in its unique mechanical, optical and aesthetic properties. There are many cases of structural glass failure thanks to poor design or construction that would be avoided with some basic glass design knowledge. In my first blog post during a series on structural glass — designed to supply basic introductory knowledge for structural engineers and designers — i will be discussing the various types of glass used for construction.
Uses: Windows, Doors, Skylights; Bricks
Advantages : Stable, Long-Lasting, Efficient, Recyclable
The ideal artefact would be ‘borrowed’ from the environment and replaced after use.
There would be little or no processing of the staple and every one the energy inputs would be directly, or indirectly, from the sun. This ideal material would even be cheap and would perform well thermally and acoustically. If used carefully, mud bricks come close to this ideal.
Basic mud bricks are made by mixing earth with water, placing the mixture into moulds and drying the bricks outdoors. Straw or other fibres that are strong in tension are often added to the bricks to assist reduce cracking. Mud bricks are joined with a mud mortar and maybe wont to build walls, vaults and domes.
The use of earth construction is well established in energy-efficient housing. Despite the very fact that the majority of the world’s buildings are made from earth and it's one among the oldest known building materials, much about its properties and potential remains undeveloped and poorly researched.
Uses: Walls, Floors
Advantages : Source Material Can Be Found On-Site, Long-Lasting, Biodegradable, High Thermal Mass; Pest- And Fire-Resistant
Plasterboard may be a panel made from calcium sulphate dihydrate (gypsum) usually pressed between a facer and a backer.
It is wont to make interior walls and ceilings. This 'Drywall' construction became popular as a quicker alternative to traditional lath and plaster.Plasterboard is employed to assist builders and designers meet building regulations for fire protection, acoustic insulation and thermal efficiency. It also can help to regulate condensation and potential damage in areas of high humidity.
Plastering is one of the oldest building techniques. Plaster is made of lime or gypsum. It’s a white material which hardens when drying and it’s mostly used for covering ceilings and walls. Plaster is employed as a protective covering over stone and brick masonry, but it also can be used for creating finish looks.
Uses: Lining Walls
Advantages : Potentially Recyclable, Breathes, Largely Natural
'Plastic' may be a general name given to a good range of synthetic materials that are supported by polymers.
The construction industry uses plastic for a wide range of applications because of its versatility, strength-to-weight ratio, durability, corrosion resistance, and so on.Plastic is often manufactured into forms such as; pipes, cables, coverings, panels, films, sheets then on; and maybe formed or expanded to make low-density materials; and be dissolved in solvents or dispersed as emulsions.
The advantages of using plastic in construction are that it's lightweight yet strong which makes it easier to move and shift around sites. It is also resistant to rot and corrosion and has strong weather ability due to it being capable of achieving tight seals. Plastic can also be flexible, and is easily extruded, bent, moulded, 3D printed, and so on. Plastic also can be easily removed and a few plastics are often recycled.
Uses: Window Frames, Water Pipes, Gutters, Floor And Wall Coverings
Advantages : Light, Durable, Resistant To Dampness, Water And Pests
Steel offers architects more design freedom in colour, texture and shape. Its combination of strength, durability, beauty, precision and malleability gives architects broader parameters to explore ideas and develop fresh solutions.
Steel’s long-spanning ability gives rise to large open spaces, free of intermediate columns or load-bearing walls. Its capacity to bend to a particular radius, creating segmented curves or free-form combinations for facades, arches or domes sets it apart.
Factory-finished to the foremost exacting specifications under highly controlled conditions, steel’s outcome is more predictable and repeatable, eliminating the danger of on-site variability.
Steel is often assembled quickly and efficiently altogether seasons. Components are pre-manufactured off-site with minimal on-site labour. Structural steel’s lighter weight relative to other framing materials like concrete enables a smaller, simpler foundation. These efficiencies in execution translate to considerable resource efficiencies and economic benefits, including accelerated project schedules, reduced site management costs and an earlier return on investment.
Uses: Frames Supports
Advantages : Strong, Economical, Durable,Recyclable
Stones are considered together of the favoured artefact from the olden day's thanks to their availability in abundance from the natural rocks.
Building stones should possess enough strength and durability. The stones which are suitable for the development of the structures like retaining walls, abutments, dams, barrages, roads etc are referred to as building stones.
The stones used for building construction should be hard, durable, tough, and will be free from weathered soft patches of fabric, cracks, and other defects that are liable for the reduction of strength and durability. Stones for construction purposes are obtained by quarrying from massive solid rocks.
Building with stone in an environmentally considerate way requires careful thought and planning. The returns from building with natural stone far outweigh the costs involved, though, pricing on this natural resource varies considerably.
Uses: Walls, Floors, Supports
Advantages : Abundant, Durable, High Thermal Mass, Economical If Available On-Site; No Toxic Emissions
Straw bale construction may be a method of building that uses bales (or bundles) of straw. Straw bales are often used as structural elements, insulation or both.
The use of straw bales is usually found in 'natural' building projects or earthen construction, and while historically it's been a standard sort of artefact in many parts of the planet, it's been received increased attention more recently thanks to its sustainable properties.
Strawbale buildings provide significant benefits in terms of costs, human health, and environmental sustainability. Straw bales can provide significant benefits in terms of costs, human health, and environmental sustainability
Several studies in different regions have underlined the remarkable properties of straw bales as insulating and construction material, highlighting their ability to achieve excellent living comfort and encouraging their use, albeit straw bale constructions don't have a big place in current building practices.
Advantages : Cheap, Renewable, a Good Insulator
Timber for construction is one of the various forest products used around the world. It is utilized in buildings both large and small; here we consider timber for the development of buildings of six or more storeys, and therefore the biochemistry and chemistry of wood modification that could enable much larger buildings. Timber is one of the foremost useful and important materials for construction.
Timber is one of the foremost useful and important materials for construction.
As a uniquely renewable building resource, timber is tough to hammer in the sustainability stakes. Timber is remarkably strong and sturdy, guaranteeing no compromise in quality even when the speed of construction is taken under consideration.
Timber structures can last many years and are less costly and straightforward to take care of than other materials. Timber keeps emerging as a reliable artefact that has the potential to supply great benefits getting into a sustainable future.
Uses: Floors, Walls, Supports And Roof Frames
Advantages : Strong, Easy To Work With, Versatile, Potentially Renewable, Biodegradable